A SURVEY ON THE INFLUENCE OF FIELD TRIP IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Biology is an important scientific topic taught in Nigerian senior secondary schools in both English and Hausa. Biology education’s goals, according to the National Policy on Education (NPE) (2014), include training students to achieve acceptable laboratory and field competencies in biology, as well as preparing them to be lifelong learners. To attain the aforementioned goals, the curriculum’s content and context emphasize field studies, guided discovery laboratory procedures, and other methodologies, among other things. Instead of teaching biology in natural settings, today’s Nigerian instructors have deviated from the stated goals. The speak and chalk technique of teaching, in which the instructor conducts the talking and the pupils are passive participants in the learning process, has established a phenomena in most schools across the country. Their only job is to listen to the teacher and react to his or her questions. Field trips give a multitude of educational possibilities since kids learn via true hands-on experience rather than simply reading or hearing about a subject. For students to be successful in science, it is critical to give them with not just a science immersion experience, but also to help them to grasp science as a creative process and method of thinking rather than as a defined body of material. According to Yusuf (2011), people learn most naturally when they learn from their own life experiences. Students that are actively immersed in their work will learn and appreciate it more, which may be accomplished through a field trip.Field trips help students appreciate the relevance and importance of what they learn in the classroom. According to Akubuilo (2010) field-trip is a method of teaching that involves taking the students on an excursion outside the classroom for the purpose of making relevant observation necessary for understanding of the topic under study. Often times such trips / excursions enable student to obtain scientific, technological and vocational information. Field trip offer students firsthand experience since they see and observe processes in natural life settings. Field trip enables students to discover and explore new information and also apply/organize previous knowledge by giving concrete examples. Field trips are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner thereby enabling the learner to gain direct experience (Ilori, 2010). According to Bitgood and Stephen (2009), Field trip is a trip by students to gain firsthand knowledge away from the classroom, as to a museum, factory, geological area, or environment of certain plants and animals. Field trip is a trip arranged by the school and undertaken for educational purpose in which the students go to places where the materials for instruction may be observed and studied directly in their natural setting. In field work, students assume active investigative roles, thinking like a scientist and doing real science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Given the significance of biology and the amount of students that study it, it is concerning that a substantial proportion of student failed biology in the Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE). Statistics from the West African Examination Council show that students have consistently performed poorly in scientific topics, particularly biology (WAEC Chief Examiner’s reports for 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, and 2015). According to Egbunonu and Ugbaja (2012).Biology instructors’ extensive use of unsatisfactory lectures and insufficient materials or resources required for good biology education are among the contributing variables. This might be because the emphasis is mostly on kids’ poor acquisition. As a result, biology is taught to students as a static body of information rather than a dynamic area of inquiry. In the study of biology, there is a need to research the usage of more effective tactics. As a result, the research focuses on the impact of field trips the teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of field trips the teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.Specifically the study will also
Determine the what kind of field trip associated to effective teaching and learning in secondary school.
Ascertain what extent biology teachers utilizes field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school
Evaluate the significance of field trip on the teaching and learning of biology
Investigate the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study will be guided by the following research questions
What kind of field trip associated to effective teaching and learning in secondary school?
To what extent do biology teachers utilize field trips approach in teaching and learning of biology?
What is the relative importance of field trips approach in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools?
What are factors affecting the use of field trips approach in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The research shall elucidate the nature of field trips in teaching and learning in biology in secondary school. And analyze the factors affecting the use of field trips in teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools.It shall also serve as a veritable source of information on issues of field trip in teaching and learning.Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve as reference material to scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study shall appraise the nature of field trip in teaching and learning of biology in secondary school. The study will further elucidate the factors affecting the use of field trip in teaching and learning. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Abaji Area council in FCT Abuja.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only secondary school in Abaji Area council in FCT Abuja.Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FIELD TRIP DEFINED
Concepts of Field Trip strategy was introduced in 1827 by George Shillibeer for a Quaker school at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London, United Kingdom.
A field trip is a visit to a place outside the regular classroom which is designed to achieve certain objectives, which cannot be achieved as well by using other means. For example if the lesson is on “making cheese”, and if there is no hand on experience it is very difficult to achieve the objectives. In such a lesson this strategy is required. Field trips give opportunity for a students to get out of the classroom and experience something new. The located place for field trip can be zoos, collages, museums, theater and schools.
The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.Knowledge or skill gained through schooling or study. Behavioral modification especially through experience or conditioning.